Flame Treatment

Flame treatment increases the bondability of plastic by oxidising the surface through brief exposure to flame. The oxidation proceeds as a free radical mechanism, accompanied by chain scissions and some crosslinking. The functionalities introduced by oxidation are hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and amide groups, with a typical oxidation depth of approximately four to nine nanometers. Wettability is improved by increased surface energy. The chain scissions on the surface contribute to higher interfacial diffusivity. Thermal Surface Treatment

Thermal treatment increases the bondability of plastics by exposing the plastic to a blast of hot air (approximately 500°C/932°F), which oxidises the surface. This method mainly introduces carbonyl, carboxyl and amide groups to the surface, but some hydroperoxide groups are also formed. Very similar to flame treatments, this process also utilises a free radical mechanism accompanied by chain scission and some crosslinking. The improved bondability results from increased wettability due to the introduction of polar groups and interfacial diffusivity caused by chain scissions.

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